60-GHz four-element phased-array transmit/receive system-in-package using phase compensation techniques in 65nm flip-chip CMOS process

  • Author
    J.-L. Kuo, Y.-F. Lu, T.-Y. Huang, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-K. Hsieh, P.-J. Peng, I-C. Chang, T. C. Tsai, K.-Y. Kao, W.-Y. Hsiung, J. Wang, Y. A. Hsu, K.-Y. Lin, H.-C. Lu, Y.-C. Lin, L.-H. Lu, T.-W. Huang, R.-B. Wu, and H. Wang
  • Published in
    IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 60, no. 3
  • Time
    Mar 01, 2012
  • Abstract

    A 60-GHz four-element phased-array transmit/receive (TX/RX) system-in-package antenna modules with phase-compensated techniques in 65-nm CMOS technology are presented. The design is based on the all-RF architecture with 4-bit RF switched LC phase shifters, phase compensated variable gain amplifier (VGA), 4:1 Wilkinson power combining/dividing network, variable-gain low-noise amplifier, power amplifier, 6-bit unary digital-to-analog converter, bias circuit, electrostatic discharge protection, and digital control interface (DCI). The 2 × 2 TX/RX phased arrays have been packaged with four antennas in low-temperature co-fired ceramic modules through flip-chip bonding and underfill process and phased-array beam steering have been demonstrated. The entire beam-steering functions are digitally controllable, and individual registers are integrated at each front-end to enable beam steering through the DCI. The four-element TX array results in an output P1dB of 5 dBm per channel. The four-element RX array results in an average gain of 25 dB per channel. The four-element array consumes 400 mW in TX and 180 mW in RX and occupies an area of 3.74 mm2 in the TX integrated circuit (IC) and 4.18 mm2 in the RX IC. The beam-steering measurement results show acceptable agreement of the synthesized and measured array pattern.