Design of a 60-GHz substrate integrated waveguide Butler matrix - a systematic approach

  • Author
    C.-J.Chen and T.-H.Chu
  • Published in
    IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. , pp. 1724–1733
  • Time
    Jul 01, 2010
  • Abstract

    A 60-GHz substrate integrated waveguide Butler matrix designed based on a systematic approach is fabricated by a standard single-layer print circuit board process, which is more economical for mass-production than are the advanced processes such as low temperature co-fired ceramic and thick-film process, etc. The systematic approach involves design equations, simulations and measurements. Starting with a set of explicit design equations for the short-slot couplers, one calculates the structure dimensions. The calculated dimensions are then optimized with full-wave simulation to finalize the design of the key components, including the couplers and phase shifters. With the use of noncoaxial multiport measurement technique, the characteristics of the components are acquired through a probe station and a two-port vector network analyzer. Measurement technique plays a critical role in the systematic design approach. By measuring at the intrinsic ports or the wave ports defined in the full-wave simulations, the components are unambiguously verified and then integrated to complete the design of the Butler matrix. The resulting Butler matrix is also verified by the measured eight-port S-matrix, which is shown in good agreement with the simulated one. As the measured results of the Butler matrix show, for the operating bandwidth from 58- to 62-GHz, the reflections and isolations are lower than -13.5-dB and the insertion losses are below 2.5-dB. Much like the measured results of the components, the measured eight-port S-matrix not only verifies the design of the Butler matrix, but also will facilitate the follow-on design of a switched-beam antenna array.